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Naturdao: useful and effective against DAO deficiency

Intolerance, food allergy and histamine poisoning can be treated with Naturdao, a Legumactive-based food supplement.

Naturdao: useful and effective against DAO deficiency Naturdao: useful and effective against DAO deficiency

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Histamine allergy

Food allergy is a reaction in which the body mistakes a harmless protein, called an allergen, as harmful. When we come into contact with this allergen, the immune system produces an exaggerated response that can affect various organs in the body.

Food allergy is usually immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and can begin very quickly, anywhere from a few minutes to an hour after ingesting the allergen. This is as defined by the World Allergy Organization (WAO).

Histamine intolerance

Food intolerance occurs when our body reacts abnormally to certain foods or their components, although in normal doses they would not cause problems.

In histamine intolerance, the amount of histamine that accumulates in the body is critical.

Unlike food allergy, intolerance symptoms may take time to appear, are longer and the IgE antibody test is usually negative.

This problem occurs because our body cannot eliminate histamine in the necessary amount, which causes an excessive accumulation of this substance and the appearance of symptoms when it binds to its specific receptors (H1, H2, H3 or H4). It is important to note that this is a pathological process.

histamine poisoning

Histamine poisoning is characterized by having normal levels of tryptase in the blood. Symptoms usually appear 20 to 30 minutes after ingesting the histamine and can last from a few hours to a day.

Among the most common symptoms of histamine poisoning are:

  • Itching and/or burning of the tongue.
  • Redness and swelling of the face and neck.
  • Headache and dizziness.
  • Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

 

In general, these symptoms are mild and go away soon after they start.

Who metabolizes histamine? DAO and HNMT enzymes

DAO (Diamino oxidase) is an enzyme found mainly in the small intestine, ascending colon, placenta, and kidneys. In the intestine, its activity gradually increases from the duodenum to the ileum and is located mainly in the intestinal villi.

On the other hand, HNMT (Histamine N-methyltransferase) is found in various organs and tissues in the body, such as the kidneys, liver, spleen, colon, prostate, ovaries, spinal cord, and respiratory tract. This has been shown in studies by Elmore BO, et al. (2002), Gludovacz E., et al. (2018), Elsenhans B., et al. (1999), and Maints L. (2007).

Histamine breakdown in the gut

In a healthy person, food contains histamine in a normal amount. When ingested, most histamine is broken down and inactivated in the intestine by the enzymes DAO and HNMT. As a result, only a small amount of histamine reaches the bloodstream and does not cause any symptoms.

In a healthy person , the normal intake of histamine in food does not cause problems as the DAO and HNMT enzymes in the intestine can inactivate it. However, when a healthy person consumes foods that are high in histamine, such as some types of fish that contain a lot of histidine, excessive levels of histamine can form in the food, especially if it is not handled hygienically. Although cooking, pasteurization and refrigeration do not eliminate histamine, freezing and refrigeration at temperatures below 4ºC can minimize its formation. The symptoms of histamine poisoning can appear when an excessive amount of histamine is ingested and the enzymatic activity of DAO and HNMT is not enough to inactivate it, causing histamine to enter the bloodstream and cause symptoms. Histamine formation is mainly related to unhygienic handling of food and occurs in fish such as tuna, mackerel, bonito, sardines and anchovies, and in fermented and matured products such as cheese, wine and beer, although poisoning from these foods is less common.

What can we do as consumers?

To avoid histamine poisoning, it is important to take precautionary measures when buying and handling food, especially fish. It is advisable to maintain the cold chain, using isothermal bags during transport, and refrigerate or freeze the fish immediately upon arrival at home. The fridge must be at a temperature below 4ºC and it is important not to thaw the fish at room temperature. In addition, good hygiene should be maintained in the kitchen, washing hands before handling food and using clean, BPA-free utensils. By taking these precautions, you reduce the risk of histamine poisoning when consuming food.

In a person with histamine intolerance , the DAO and HNMT enzymes in the intestine do not function properly and are unable to inactivate ingested histamine. This histamine passes into the bloodstream and causes symptoms. DAO normally acts as a barrier against the absorption of histamine into the bloodstream. Both DAO and HNMT are found in the intestinal lining.

Therefore, taking NATURDAO supplements may be beneficial for those with histamine intolerance.



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